Background: Newer treatment modalities require subtyping of non-small cell lung carcinomas

Background: Newer treatment modalities require subtyping of non-small cell lung carcinomas (NSCLC). positive tumors and 4 of the TTF-1 unfavorable tumors. CK20 was unfavorable in all. All the 14 TTF-1 positive tumors were primary lung tumors 12 being NSCLC and 2 being squamous cell carcinoma. Five of nine TTF-1 unfavorable tumors were metastatic tumors from endometrium kidney and head and neck region (two) and one was an unknown primary. Four of the nine TTF-1 unfavorable tumors were morphologically NSCLC and were clinically considered to be primary lung tumors. Three of these tumors stained positive for CK7 but unfavorable for CK20 and p63 Coelenterazine and one case was unfavorable for the immunomarkers. Conclusion: Use of limited IHC panel helps categorize primary versus secondary tumors to the lung. The p63 is usually a useful marker for detecting squamous cell carcinoma. In countries where antibodies Coelenterazine are not readily available using a limited IHC panel of TTF-1 p63 and CK7 can help further Coelenterazine type NSCLC lung tumors. Keywords: Fine needle aspirates immunohistochemistry non-small cell lung carcinoma Introduction Lung cancer is the most common cancer worldwide and is the leading cause of death in many countries. In the past primary bronchopulmonary carcinomas were classified as non-small cell lung carcinoma (NSCLC) and small cell neuroendocrine carcinoma. With the introduction of new treatment modalities it has become important to specifically classify primary NSCLC.[1] The identification of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) positive NSCLC permits the use of tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKI). Also the recognition of squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) is usually important because if this subset of lung carcinoma patients is usually given bevacizumab then it may lead to serious pulmonary bleeding.[2] Most patients with lung carcinoma present with clinically advanced disease and fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) may be the only available diagnostic specimen and also the only material available for molecular studies necessary for current therapeutic decision making.[2 3 4 It is well documented that cytomorphology and immunohistochemistry (IHC) are useful in further categorization of NSCLC.[5] In centers where IHC is not readily accessible a limited panel of antibodies can be used to categorize the tumor. In this study we used a limited panel of antibodies to classify NSCLC diagnosed based on FNA from lung lesions. Materials and Methods Fine cIAP2 needle aspirates from patients with lung carcinoma with a morphological diagnosis of NSCLC over a period of 5 years were studied. In 23 cases adequate cell block preparations were available. Informed consent was obtained from the subjects. The clinical data were unfolded after the IHC results were analyzed. IHC was performed (blinded to the clinical data) for thyroid transcription factor-1 (TTF-1) cytokeratin 7 (CK7) cytokeratin 20 (CK20) tumor protein p63 and chromogranin A. IHC was performed manually on representative 4-μm sections cut from formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded cell blocks using commercially available monoclonal antibodies. Dehydrated tissue sections for immunocytochemistry were treated with 3% hydrogen peroxide in methanol for 10 min to block endogenous peroxidase and heated in 0.01 M citrate buffer (pH 6.0) in a microwave for epitope retrieval. Sections as well as smears were incubated with primary antibody for 1 h at room temperature. Detection system used was Envision-Flex (DAKO Glostrup Denmark) according to manufacturer’s instructions. Detection was achieved using diaminobenzidine (DAB+ Liquid; DAKO Carpinteria CA USA). The antibodies used in the study were TTF-1 (monoclonal 8 1 dilution; DAKO Carpinteria CA USA) CK7 (monoclonal OV-TL 12/30; 1:50 dilution; DAKO Glostrup Denmark) CK20 (monoclonal KS 20.8; 1:50 dilution; DAKO Glostrup Denmark) p63 (monoclonal 4 1 dilution; DAKO Glostrup Denmark) Coelenterazine and chromogranin A (monoclonal DAK-A3 1 dilution DAKO Glostrup Denmark). Standard appropriate histologic tissue was used as positive control and the negative control Coelenterazine was run by omission of primary antibody. They were used for each run. Staining was considered positive when the tumor cells showed a diffuse or focal staining. A histological examination was available in two cases only. Results TTF-1 was positive in 14 and negative in 9 cases. The p63 was positive in two.