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It ought to be noted that TNF- and IL-2 are cytokines that promote cellular immunity, while IL-6 stimulates the humoral response (55)

It ought to be noted that TNF- and IL-2 are cytokines that promote cellular immunity, while IL-6 stimulates the humoral response (55). rats a high-fat diet plan elevated bloodstream markers of induction of irritation, ie pro-inflammatory cytokines IL-6 and TNF-, and in addition considerably elevated IgE. The diet had no effect on the blood count, except for an increase in the number of neutrophils. The chromium compounds tested, particularly Cr-Met and Cr-NPs, stimulated the immune system of the rats, as indicated by increased concentrations of IgA, IGFBP2 IgE, IL-2, IL-6, TNF-, and Cp. Given the increase in inflammatory mediators induced by chromium, it should not be used to mitigate the effects of a high-fat diet. Moreover, chromium picolinate and chromium nanoparticles were shown to increase the content of caspase 3 and 8 in the blood of rats, which indicates a pro-apoptotic effect. The effects of the use of chromium nanoparticles include reductions in the WBC count and in the thrombocyte count (leuko- and thrombopenia). Taking account these data the use of chromium as dietary supplement should be reconsidered. Analysis The following hematological parameters were determined in whole heparinized blood using the ABACUS Jr VET Analyzer (DIATRON MI PLC, Budapest, Hungary): total white blood cell (WBC) count, lymphocyte (LYM) count and percentage, medium-sized cell (MID) count and percentage, neutrophils (NEU) count and percentage, red blood cell count (RBC), hemoglobin (HGB), hematocrit (HCT), mean corpuscular volume (MCV), mean corpuscular hemoglobin (MCH), mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration (MCHC), red cell distribution width (RDWc), platelet count (PLT), platelet percentage (PCT), mean platelet volume (MPV), and platelet distribution width (PDWc). In addition, selected immune parameters were determined in the blood plasma: levels of immunoglobulins A and E (IgA and IgE), interleukin-6 (IL-6), interleukin-2 (IL-2), and tumor necrosis factor (TNF-); activity of ceruloplasmin (Cp); and levels of caspase 3 and 8 (Casp3 and Casp8). Immune parameters were determined using commercial measurement enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) kit (MyBioSource Inc., San Diego, USA). Absorbances were measured at 450 nm ELISA reader. Statistical Analysis The results are expressed as means and pooled SEM. Two-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) was used to determine the effect of the Cr source (Cr: none, Cr-Pic, Cr-Met, Cr-NPs) and the diet type (D: standard or high-fat low-fiber diets) and the interaction between these two factors (Cr D). Immethridine hydrobromide If the analysis revealed a significant interaction ( 0.05), the differences between treatment groups were then determined by Duncans test at 0.05. The data were checked for normality prior to the statistical analyses. The statistical analysis was performed using STATISTICA software, version 10.0 (StatSoft Corp., Krakow, Poland). Results Effects of a High-Fat Diet Administration of a high-fat diet to rats increased the number of NEU in the blood (= 0.014) relative to the group receiving the standard diet ( Table 2 ). Feeding rats with a high-fat diet did not affect red blood cell and platelet parameters ( Tables 3 , 4 ). While in addition, the high-fat diet caused Immethridine hydrobromide an increase in the blood levels of IgE (= 0.047), IL-6 (= 0.032), and TNF- (= 0.022) ( Table 5 ). Table 2 Hematological parameters of the blood. = 0.044), with the lowest value noted for group Cr-Met. Compared to the group that did not receive added Cr, the addition of this element, irrespective of the form used, reduced the LYM count (= 0.017) in the blood, with the lowest value noted in the group receiving Cr-Met. The NEU count was increased by the addition of Cr-Pic to the diet but decreased by the addition of Cr-Met (= 0.024) relative to the group without added Cr. Both Cr-NPs and Cr-Met reduced the NEU percentage (= 0.002) in the blood, with the lowest value noted in the Cr-Met group. The addition of Cr-NPs and Cr-Pic to the diet caused a decrease in the MID count (= 0.006) in the Immethridine hydrobromide blood of the rats, with the lowest value noted in the Cr-Pic group. In addition, Cr added to the diet, irrespective of the form used, reduced the percentage of MID (= 0.026) relative to the group with no added Cr in.