These authors furthermore established that effect does not involve any of the pathways known to activate eEF2 but, instead, is mediated via the activation of PKC . Another recent investigation revealed the involvement of the neuropeptide in the anabolism of bone mass. between oxytocin and stress with emphasis on the hypothalamoCpituitaryCadrenal axis, (iii) the involvement of oxytocin in pain regulation and nociception, (iv) the specific action mechanisms of oxytocin on intracellular Ca2+ in the hypothalamo neurohypophysial system (HNS) cell bodies, (v) newly generated transgenic rats tagged by a visible fluorescent protein to study the physiology of vasopressin and oxytocin, and (vi) the action of the neurohypophysial hormone outside the central nervous system, including the myometrium, heart and peripheral nervous system. As a short nine amino acid IFNW1 peptide, closely related to its partner peptide vasopressin, oxytocin appears to be ideal for the design of agonists and antagonists of its receptor. In addition, not only the hormone itself and its binding to OTR, but also its synthesis, storage and release can be endogenously and exogenously regulated to counteract pathophysiological says. Understanding the fundamental physiopharmacology of the effects of oxytocin is an important and necessary approach for developing a potential pharmacotherapy. assays and not directly on receptor assays. Moreover, these peptides have never been tested for their affinities on V1b receptor. Thus, it is advisable to be quite cautious around the question of their selectivity. Of interest, in a recent review, Chini et al. have clearly stated that establishing the affinity and efficacy of selective agonists and antagonists for vasopressin and oxytocin receptors is usually a complex task and depends on all the vasopressin/oxytocin receptor subtypes within the species under investigation . In this particular MCB-613 physiologically relevant model, that is, the SON neurones, no detailed receptor MCB-613 pharmacology was performed. Noteworthy that this activation of oxytocin receptors by oxytocin and the messengers involved in the signaling cascade are more straightforward than those described for vasopressin (see review by Dayanithi et al. ). There is still debate regarding the appropriate concentrations of specific agonists and antagonists to use in examining the physiology of SON neurones. Another aspect that deserves attention is the regulation of oxytocin and vasopressin release by neurosteroids. In this study, experiments were performed to look at the [Ca2+]i profiles and peptide release from both supraoptic nuclei and their axon terminals in different age groups, ranging from young animals to fully produced adults . The results showed that at the level of SONs, the oxytocin release induced by neurosteroids involves a mechanism that partly depends on the presence of GABA (depolarizing in young rats) and that the effect of the neuroactive steroid allopregnanolone upon oxytocin release changes with age, as the action of GABAA receptors changes from excitation to inhibition of oxytocin neurones . Recently we have highlighted the importance of the relationship between neurosteroids, oxytocin and the role of calcium ions [18, 19]. Further studies have exhibited that glial coverage of neurones and of their synapses is usually modified in response to stimulation. During MCB-613 stimulation, intersynaptic crosstalk is usually enhanced when astrocytes withdraw their processes. Therefore, astrocytes are critically important for the regulation of MCB-613 communications between neighbouring synapses and extrasynaptic transmission. Under conditions of increased oxytocin secretion, for exmaple, during lactation or osmotic stimulation, astroglial coverage of supraoptic nucleus neurones in the hypothalamus is usually significantly diminished [20, 21]. Because glial cells represent a physical barrier to diffusion, they have been shown to influence extrasynaptic (or volume) transmission [22,23]. Reduction of the astrocytic coverage of SON neurones dramatically increases the extracellular diffusion of the primary neurotransmitter glutamate and, as a consequence, increases the glutamate\induced heterosynaptic depressive disorder of GABAergic transmission . The changes in diffusion properties and in glutamate spillover that are associated with anatomical remodeling are thus likely to improve neurohypophyseal hormone release in response to suckling or dehydration . The question arises to what extent does oxytocin control the astroglial remodeling. Localization of Oxytocin Receptors within the Brain The central actions of oxytocin are mediated via oxytocin receptors (OTRs) distributed widely in the brain in a remarkably species\specific fashion. Areas made up of OTRs include, but are not restricted to, the ventromedial nucleus of the hypothalamus, the amygdala, the MCB-613 lateral septum, the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis, the anterior olfactory nucleus, the preoptic and ventral tegmental areas, and the.