Brucellosis is a highly contagious bacterial disease affecting a wide range of animals, as well as humans

Brucellosis is a highly contagious bacterial disease affecting a wide range of animals, as well as humans. wide range of domesticated and wild animals, as well as humans. It can escape recognition of the innate immunity and evade intracellular destruction [7]. The virulence of spp. in a particular host species is mainly related to their intracellular replication. Their virulence depends on their survival and replication properties inside the host cells, as well as their ability to survive inside phagocytic and nonphagocytic cells [8]. displays a marked tissue tropism for the lymphoreticular and reproductive tract, causing significant clinical disorders and pathology. The intracellular way of life of limits exposure to innate and adaptive immune responses [9]. The pathogen is usually transmitted to humans by direct contact with diseased animals and excreta, e.g., during obstetrics or slaughter. It is thus an occupational risk in slaughterhouses and on dairy farms. The most common way of spillover hosts, however, is the ingestion of contaminated milk or milk products. Human-to-human transmission of brucellosis can occur via lactation, transplacental, and sexual routes, as well as by tissues, blood, and bone marrow transplantations, but it is usually rare [10]. In many developing countries, the disease is usually endemic and is a public health problem due to the high prevalence in livestock. Albeit the presence of highly restrictive control programs, some of these countries cannot implement these eradication programs effectively, resulting in the distributing and contamination of nonspecific hosts [11]. Brucellae-infected livestock are host-restricted. For instance, and preferentially infect cattle, small ruminants, pigs, and sheep, respectively [8]. It has been previously shown that can even be isolated from Nile catfish in Egypt [12] following the disposal of abort materials in the Nile and its canals. Furthermore, was recovered from a dog and a cat after ingestion of infected placenta materials and ingestion of milk from strain much like a can colonize in amphibians and persist in their environment. In addition, a novel atypical strain was NSC305787 isolated from a blue-spotted ribbon tail ray (contamination in saltwater fish and amphibians extends the host range of this pathogenic bacterium. The ubiquitous distribution of brucellae in several reservoirs is the factor determining its global prevalence on all continents and in the majority of countries [19]. In the last decades, anti-antibodies have been found in different avian species, e.g., chickens, pigeons, and ducks, in some regions of Africa and Asia [20,21,22,23,24,25]. However, the pathogen has not been isolated yet from birds. Several studies have shown that wild and NSC305787 migratory birds are able to carry pathogens and serve as mechanical vectors or reservoirs for numerous infectious brokers [26,27]. Recently, the examination of blood samples collected from 33 migratory birds along the Mediterranean revealed the presence of spp. in one sample obtained from the great reed warbler [28]. Thus, it is not clear whether poultry can be infected and induce a disease or may act as a susceptible host for brucellae, i.e., whether bacteria survive and replicate within birds and cause symptoms or whether they may only seroconvert. Consequently, no descriptions of specific pathological lesions are available. If poultry have to be considered as hosts, their role in transmission and dissemination has to be decided. In this statement, we summarize previously published information on brucellae in avian wards and assist in solving the NSC305787 current argument. 2. Serological Evidence of Brucellosis in Birds Until now, several bird species have been found to harbor anti-antibodies using the standard serological tests. The majority of these birds were kept in traditional husbandry systems with multiple animal species, e.g., small ruminants or cattle. This cohabitation system enhances potential transmissions from animals. A minimal quantity of studies [20,21,22,23,24,25] were performed in different countries to investigate whether poultry can harbor the organism (Table 1). Recently, Ali and colleges collected blood samples from 79 different avian species in Pakistan. The use of the Rose Bengal test (RBT) showed that two samples from a p54bSAPK peafowl (antibodies [23]. All of these studies were carried out without further confirmation by cultures, the gold standard for the diagnosis of brucellosis. It is highly likely that a significant crossreaction may be noted with.