Supplementary Materialsciz108_suppl_Supplementary_Details. compared to TN cells (2179 vs 684 copies/106 cells, respectively). Following exposure to anti-CD3/CD28 mAbs, virion-associated HIV-1 RNA levels were similar between TCM and TN cells (15 135 vs 18 290 copies/mL, respectively). In 4/7 donors, virus production was higher for TN cells independent of the latency reversing agent used. Replication-competent virus was recovered from both TN and TCM cells. Conclusions Although the frequency of HIV-1 infection is lower in TN compared to TCM cells, as much virus ALK inhibitor 2 is produced from the TN population after latency reversal. This finding suggests that quantifying HIV-1 DNA alone may not predict the size of the inducible latent reservoir and that TN cells may be an important reservoir of latent HIV-1. gene . Quantification of Extracellular Virion-associated HIV-1 RNA Extracellular virion-associated HIV-1 RNA was extracted and quantified as previously described . Quantitative Viral Outgrowth Assay The quantitative viral outgrowth assay was carried out as previously described . Infectious units per million cells (IUPM) were calculated as described previously [23, 24]. Outgrowth positive wells were determined using a p24 enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ZeptoMetrix Corporation). Flow Cytometry T-cell activation was assessed by flow cytometry using the following antibodies (from BD Biosciences): Mouse Monoclonal to Rabbit IgG CD3-V450, CD4-PerCP-Cy5.5, CD25-PE-Cy7, CD69-PE, and HLA-DR-FITC. Cell viability was determined using a LIVE/DEAD fixable cell viability dye for flow cytometry (Invitrogen). All samples were run on an LSRII, and the data were analyzed using FlowJo vX.0.7. Statistical Analyses Statistical comparison between paired samples was performed using a Wilcoxon matched-pairs signed rank test. For all unpaired samples, statistics were determined using a Mann-Whitney test. For statistical comparisons between unpaired samples where N 6, statistics were determined using an unpaired test. For all statistical analyses, .05 was considered significant. All statistics were calculated in GraphPad Prism v6.0. RESULTS Donor Characteristics Experiments were performed using PBMC obtained from 7 (4 females, ALK inhibitor 2 3 males) chronically HIV-1Cinfected donors on suppressive ART who met the eligibility criterion of having plasma HIV-1 RNA 20 copies/mL for 5 years, with a median of 9.5 years (Table 1). The median age was 52 years. Five of the donors were black and 2 were white. The median CD4+ T-cell count at the time of leukapheresis was 803 cells/mm3. CD4+ TN Cells Harbor Less Total HIV-1 DNA Than TCM Cells HIV-1 DNA was detectable in both the TN and TCM subsets in every 7 donors (Shape 1A, Supplementary Desk 1). However, in keeping with prior research [6C8, 25], the degrees of total HIV-1 DNA had been considerably higher (median collapse modification, 5.4; range, 1.2C14.7; = .0175) in the TCM ALK inhibitor 2 cells (mean, 2179 copies/106 cells; range, 723C4533) in comparison to TN cells (mean, 684 copies/106 cells; ALK inhibitor 2 range, 158C1380). We also quantified total HIV-1 DNA in the mixed Compact disc4+ TTM/TEM cell human population (Shape 1A). These cells harbored somewhat higher degrees of HIV-1 DNA set alongside the TCM cells (mean fold modification, 1.8; range, 1.1C3.0); nevertheless, this increase had not been significant statistically. The TTM/TEM cell human population, however, harbored considerably higher degrees of total HIV-1 DNA vs the TN cells (= .0006). Next, we established the contribution of every T-cell subset to the full total HIV-1 tank in resting Compact disc4+ T cells mainly because previously referred to . First, we approximated the frequency of every T-cell subset in the relaxing Compact disc4+ T cells from each donor (Shape 1B, Supplementary Shape 3). We after that determined the contribution of every Compact disc4+ T-cell subset to the entire tank of HIV-1 DNA in the relaxing Compact disc4+ T-cell human population by taking into account both the rate of recurrence of every T-cell subset in the peripheral bloodstream, aswell as the rate of recurrence of the full total HIV-1 DNA for the reason that subset. We discovered that the Compact disc4+ TCM human population harbored the best degrees of total HIV-1 DNA (Shape 1C), in keeping with previously released research . Open in a separate window Figure 1. Quantification of the total human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) DNA reservoir in CD4+ T naive (TN), T central memory (TCM), transitional memory (TTM)+effector memory (TEM) cells purified from HIV-infected individuals on antiretroviral therapy. gene). values were determined using a MannCWhitney test. Abbreviation: PBMC, peripheral blood mononuclear cell..