Supplementary MaterialsS1 File: Partial 16S ribosomal DNA sequences of ASW-1. 16S rDNA of ASW-1, ASW-2, ASW-3, ASS-1 and ASS-2 determined in this study had been deposited in the GenBank database under accession numbers “type”:”entrez-nucleotide”,”attrs”:”text”:”KM243657″,”term_id”:”700054416″,”term_text”:”KM243657″KM243657, “type”:”entrez-nucleotide”,”attrs”:”text”:”KM243658″,”term_id”:”700054422″,”term_text”:”KM243658″KM243658, “type”:”entrez-nucleotide”,”attrs”:”text”:”KM243659″,”term_id”:”700054437″,”term_text”:”KM243659″KM243659, “type”:”entrez-nucleotide”,”attrs”:”text”:”KM243661″,”term_id”:”700054469″,”term_text”:”KM243661″KM243661 and “type”:”entrez-nucleotide”,”attrs”:”text”:”KM243662″,”term_id”:”700054485″,”term_text”:”KM243662″KM243662, respectively. Table 1 Morphology and biochemical characterization of the strains. sp., sp. sp., or 860352-01-8 860352-01-8 were also found in previous study, [32, 33] which could enhance oil biodegradation efficiency.  The bacteria belonging to sp. and sp. show strong biodegradation ability and have been reported in degrading chlorinated aromatic compounds that resistant to be biodegraded. [34C36] And in this study, these five strains belonging to bacterial species mentioned above all performed well in crude oil biodegradation, which got more than 50% of degradation efficiencies with 1% (sp., sp., sp., and sp., respectively. The mixed flora of the five strains showed the highest degradation efficiency of petroleum hydrocarbons of 75.1%. Immobilized bacterial consortium performed better than free bacteria in variations of environmental factors containing incubated temperature, initial pH and salinity of the medium. After 7ds biodegradation, the degradation efficiencies of crude oil (2%, em w/v /em ) of 860352-01-8 immobilized cells were more than 60% with temperature of 15C30C, initial pH of 6.0C9.0, salinity of 15%C35%. Immobilization improved microbial tolerance to high crude oil concentrations, more obviously occurred when crude oil concentration more than 10% ( em w/v /em ). The degradation process of crude oil by immobilized bacteria was accelerated compared with that of the free bacteria. SEM photos showed that activated carbons adding in the bio-carrier of sodium alginate-calcium chloride profited the diffusion of oxygen, substrates and metabolites, which led to better performance in biodegradation. Biodegradation of bacterial consortium in bio-carrier was the main moving force to crude oil removal, and the bio-carrier provided an arena for bacterial cells protection and better biodegradation. The degradation efficiency of em n /em -alkanes (53.5%) by free bacterial consortium was more than that of 16 PAHs (40.6%). Immobilized microorganisms performed better on biodegradation of regular alkanes than that of PAHs. Improvement in the removal performance of em n /em -alkanes (31.9%) by immobilization was also apparently high than that of PAHs (1.9%). Helping details S1 FilePartial 16S ribosomal DNA sequences of ASW-1. (TXT) Just click here for extra data document.(1.4K, txt) S2 FilePartial 16S ribosomal DNA sequences of ASW-2. (TXT) Just click here for extra data document.(1.3K, txt) S3 FilePartial 16S Rabbit Polyclonal to EMR1 ribosomal DNA sequences of ASW-3. 860352-01-8 (TXT) Just click here for extra data document.(1.3K, txt) S4 FilePartial 16S 860352-01-8 ribosomal DNA sequences of ASS-1. (TXT) Just click here for extra data document.(1.4K, txt) S5 FilePartial 16S ribosomal DNA sequences of ASS-2. (TXT) Just click here for extra data document.(1.4K, txt) Acknowledgments We acknowledge and thank for the crude essential oil test support by Xingzhong sinochem essential oil transportation (Zhoushan) Co., Ltd, China. Financing Statement This analysis was founded by Country wide Natural Science Base of China (41506126) [http://www.nsfc.gov.cn/]. The receiver is certainly Qingguo Chen. No function was got with the funder in research style, data analysis and collection, decision to create, or preparation from the manuscript. Data Availability All relevant data are inside the paper and its own Supporting Information data files..